(Failure to follow the submission instructions may delay the submission process)


Manuscripts should be prepared in Arial font size 11, double spacing, "Portrait' orientation.

Manuscripts should be divided into the following sections when submitting through "ScholarOne", and send them as separate files,

File A. (Abstract should be uploaded in the earlier stage, please follow instructions in ScholarOne)

File B. (During File Upload, choose File Designation "Title Page")
- Containing "Title Page" only.

File C. (During File Upload, choose File Designation "Main Document")
- Containing 

File D. (During File Upload, choose File Designation "Figure")
- Containing "Figures" only

File E. (During File Upload, choose File Designation "Table")
- Containing "Tables" only.

If you are submitting a revision, please include only the latest set of files. If you have updated a file, please delete the original version and upload the revised file. To designate the order in which your files appear, use the dropdowns in the "order" column below. View your uploaded files by clicking on HTML or PDF.


1) Abstract should not exceed 250 words and should comprise a condensed over view of the study. It should be a self-standing summary of the work that may be republished by information retrieval services. A maximum of 5 keywords should be listed at the end of the abstract. Keywords should be selected wisely for a wider dissemination of the article and must be based according to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).

2) Title Page should be arranged in the following order: (1) a concise and informative title not exceeding 80 characters; (2) authors’ full names (without degrees and titles) and affiliation including city and country. Superscript numbers may be used to affiliate authors to different departments or institutions; and (3) a complete mailing address, telephone, fax and e-mail address of the corresponding author.

3) Introduction should briefly and clearly describe the background and objective(s) of the study. Avoid exhaustive review of the literature and include only relevant recent studies.

4) Materials and Methods should be described in sufficient details so that it is reproducible. It should include technical information such as the study design, and specific procedures. Sub-headings may be used to enhance the clarity or to categorize the methods. Established methods or procedures should be named and cited. New methods or modifications of old methods should be described with complete details. Authors are advised to use generic names and terms rather than commercial names. Statistical methods applied, software used must also be stated clearly and concisely.

5) Results should be presented in a logical sequence in text, tables and illustrations. Subheadings may be used to enhance clarity or to call attention to the most significant findings. Data appearing in tables or figures may be summarized but not duplicated in the text. Tables and figures should be numbered in the order in which they are described and cited in the text.

6) Discussion section should summarize, explain and interpret the results with a scientifically critical view of previously published works in the field. Avoid repetition of the data already presented in the result section.

7) Acknowledgements to be given to those who have provided assistance to the project and sponsors who have given financial support and funds.

8) References should list all sources cited in the paper. Arrange the citations in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author without numbering in the text. Reference section should also be typed in double spaces. Cite article as e.g. (Tan et al., 2013) and (López-Jornet, 2006).

If there are more than six authors, the first six authors should be listed and followed by et al.

If there are more than one reference for each statement or sentence, arrange them from the oldest to the newest, e.g. (Esan et al., 2004; Zulkipli et al., 2018).

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Standard journal article

References to journals should provide the name(s) of the author(s), year, title of the paper and journal, volume and issue number, page numbers and DOI (where applicable). The journal abbreviations applied in the Index Medicus system should be used.


References to books/monographs should give the name(s) of the author(s), year, title of book, edition number, place of publication, publisher and page numbers.

Chapter in book

References to chapter in books/monographs should give the name(s) of the author(s), year, chapter title, editors, title of book, edition number, place of publication, publisher and page numbers.

Internet resources

Authors are required to add as much electronic retrieval information as needed for others to locate the cited sources.


Each table should have a suitable title with footnotes wherever necessary. Do not use vertical lines in the table. Tables must be submitted in an editable format, such as Excel or Word, and not embedded as an image or presented as an image file.


All figures could be original photographs, artwork in high-quality digital images (submitted as CMYK - 8 bits per channel in TIFF format). Images must be at least 600 by 450 pixels (proportional height) in size when in landscape orientation with a resolution of at least 300 pixels per inch. Graphs should be approximately 500 pixels wide so that all labeling can be read with data points clearly visible. Figures should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the manuscript, using Arabic numerals. A list of figure legends must be included on a separate page following the illustrations. The legend should explain each figure in detail.

Page proofs

On acceptance of the manuscripts for publication, page proofs should be reviewed meticulously by the contributors. Changes made in proof should be limited to the correction of typographical errors. Proofs must be returned for publication with corrections and responses to queries on the date specified by the Editor.